Monday, 31 March 2014

李光耀的《福布斯》文章 / China Unfettered: Redefining The Rules Of The Seas

李光耀的《福布斯》文章

作者/来源:商丘羊 / 《南洋大学校友业余网站》

晚年的李光耀(资料图)

李光耀在《福布斯》发表的文章题目是《中国无拘束:重新定义海洋规则》,文章内容阐述中国对有争议海洋的立场,以郑和下西洋作为归结。

李光耀的中国历史知识十分贫乏,他对英国历史也不甚了了。过去他谈及中国历史,往往张冠李戴,笑话百出。此次文章以郑和下西洋为归结,可以肯定不是他的所写,而是旁边的幕客师爷的代笔。

李光耀认为中国不会根据《联合国海洋法公约》解决南海争端,不会由国际社会裁决。中国为了宣示主权,树立国际地位,把拥有领海主权看得比天然资源还重要。李光耀似乎忘了,没有主权,海底的所有天然资源都是虚幻,各国都可以乘机染指,就如今天越南、马来西亚、印尼,文莱已经染指海中石油而触犯中国的经济利益。

新加坡不是南海任何岛屿的声索国,可是经常在此问题上打边鼓,指手画脚,其目的是要参与讨论,以示自己存在。李光耀和李显龙对此问题已不止一次发出声音,也因此令中国反感。

南中国海自古以来就是中国领海,如果不是丰富的天然资源,不会引起许多国家的觊觎和介入。南海争端之所以加剧,与美国的亚洲政策极有关系,日本、菲律宾在美国支持下,明目张胆与中国对峙,其余各国,因为中国采取低调处理或搁置处理,它们可以公然进行石油开采,但又不敢公然声言保护既得利益。据统计,南海现有二十几个触犯中国利益的油井正日以继夜在开采。

新加坡是唯一没有得利的国家,靠打边鼓不过是为了响应美国的政策,讨好这个保护伞的主人。李光耀在文章说“很多国家非常重视南海。南海问题不仅涉及航行和飞行自由,还涉及和平解决争端的机制”,这个堂皇冠冕的理由正是美国介入的理由。中国坚持自己拥有南海主权,这一信念是坚决而不可动摇的,为了保护自己的领海,只有建设强大的空军和海军力量,才能阻止一切侵犯利益的行为。

中国愿意与个别国家讨论南海问题,是一种温和协商而不扩大成为国际问题的做法。然而在美国的怂恿下,菲律宾将于2014年3月30日向联合国仲裁法庭提呈诉状,要求根据《联合国海洋法公约》做出裁决。中国已重申不参与仲裁程序,对菲律宾的动作不接受,不理会。

李光耀以郑和下西洋为例,他说“如果历史可以定义一国对水域和海洋的管辖权,那么中国完全可以用这些事例来证明。600年前,中国在这些水域的航行活动从未受过任何挑战”。这听起来似乎是肯定中国的南海主权不可动摇,但是仔细一想,这完全是李光耀对历史的无稽之谈。首先,郑和来往的不只是南海水道,印度洋、阿拉伯海都属于管辖权内吗?其次,中国城拥有南海的主权是经过许多方面的证实和拥有大量证据。根据李光耀的历史唯心论,西方殖民主义国家, 尤其是占据了超过自己国家80%的英国,曾经在世界各大洲各大洋寻找殖民地,是否也“可以定义一国对水域和海洋的管辖权”?

李光耀的历史知识,就是这么短浅。更可笑的是,他说由于郑和下西洋,“中国这些船队到达的地方留下了持久的影响力:很多清真寺以郑和的名字命名,以纪念他对当地的贡献”。根据普通常识,郑和只有在马六甲留下三宝井、三宝山,以及印尼的三宝洞,并无所谓的清真寺。



原文与链接

China Unfettered:
Redefining The Rules Of The Seas

Author / Source : Lee Kuan Yew / April 14, 2014 issue of Forbes

A rising China is seeking to assert its sea-boundary claims. It is naive to believe that a strong China will accept the conventional definition of what parts of the sea around it are under its jurisdiction. This should come as no surprise, but it has been uncomfortable for some of China’s neighbors and other stakeholders, including the U.S.

China, Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam are engaged in long-standing territorial and maritime disputes in the South China Sea. The Philippines, under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), has initiated international arbitration. The arbitral tribunal is proceeding, even though China has decided not to participate in the hearings.

If a negotiated agreement can’t be reached, the ideal solution would be to resolve the dispute based on international law and legal principles, including UNCLOS, that have been established in many other such cases. Can this be done through a juridical platform, such as the International Court of Justice (ICJ)? Keep in mind that major powers, including China and the U.S., don’t generally submit to the jurisdiction of the ICJ or other such forums. A resurgent China isn’t going to allow its sea boundaries to once again be decided by external parties. Therefore, I don’t believe the Chinese will submit their claims, which are based primarily on China’s historical presence in these waters, to be decided by rules that were defined at a time when China was weak. And China has judged that the U.S. won’t risk its present good relations with China over a dispute between the Philippines and China.

Why this sudden interest in some outcroppings in the South China Sea? What gas or oil can be drilled or fish caught around these rocks? Much more is at stake than rocks and resources. China sees the South China Sea as one of its key interests. A rising China is asserting its position by claiming historical rights to these waters. And the disputes, which arise from claims based on different principles, are unlikely to be resolved.

One-third of the world’s trade passes through the South China Sea, a vital sea line of communications. Many other countries also have important interests there. These include the freedom of navigation and overflight, as well as the peaceful management of disputes. Quite apart from preventing mishaps and incidents, a framework to manage the different interests should be established.

LOOKING TO THE PAST

China’s reliance on historical claims necessitates considering what its fleets did in the past, way before Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas and Vasco da Gama arrived in India. More than six centuries ago Emperor Zhu Di of the Ming Dynasty sent out a large fleet of trading ships to explore and trade with the rest of the world. His choice to command the expedition was Grand Eunuch Zheng He (1371–1433). Zheng He was born and raised a Muslim in what is now Kunming City in Yunnan Province. He was captured by Ming Dynasty forces around 1381 and taken to Nanjing, where he was castrated and subsequently sent to serve in the palace of Zhu Di, who was then the Prince of Yan and would later become Yongle Emperor.

Over the course of nearly three decades (1405–33) Zheng He led seven westward expeditions, which were unprecedented in size and range. They spanned the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf, and reached as far as the east coast of Africa. The ships used for these expeditions–more than 400 feet in length, based on archaeological evidence–were many times the size of those Columbus used to sail across the Atlantic.

These expeditions amply demonstrated the power and wealth of the Ming Dynasty. More important, they left a lasting impact on the countries visited: Numerous masjids (mosques) in the region are named after Zheng He, commemorating his contributions to the local communities.

If historical claims can define jurisdiction over waters and oceans, the Chinese can point to the fact that 600 years ago they sailed these waters unchallenged.



中国基于历史声索领土 可用郑和当证据

作者/来源:李光耀/《凤凰网》2014年03月28日08:35报导
news.ifeng.com/mil/4/detail_2014_03/28/35230740_0.shtml

郑和下西洋(资料图)

美国《福布斯》杂志4月14日(提前出版)文章,原题为“摆脱束缚的中国:重新定义海洋规则”,作者李光耀,汪北哲译。

崛起中的中国正在寻求维护其海洋边界主张。认为强大的中国会接受惯例来决定周边海域哪些属于其管辖的看法,是幼稚的。这其实并不让人意外,但中国的一些邻国和其他利益相关者(包括美国)对此感到不安。

中国、文莱、马来西亚、菲律宾和越南,正卷入一场长期的南海领土和海事争端。菲律宾根据联合国海洋法公约提起国际仲裁。如果谈判无法达成协议,那么 理想的解决办法是基于国际法和法律准则,包括联合国海洋法公约,它们是在许多类似争端中确立的。然而,一个复兴的中国是不会允许其海上边界再度由外部各方 来决定的。

因此,我认为中国不会接受他们的领土主张——主要基于中国历史上在这些海域的存在,由中国还是弱国时所制定的那些规则来决定。而且中国判定,美国不会为了菲律宾与中国的争端而危及目前良好的对华关系。

那为什么现在突然对南海的几处水面岩礁产生兴趣?这些岩礁周围可以开采油气或是捕捉到鱼?这里面的关系绝不是岩礁或资源这么简单。中国视南海为其关键利益之一。一个崛起中的中国正通过对这些水域提出历史权利来宣示自己的地位。

中国基于历史依据提出领土主张。这就有必要考虑到其舰队早在哥伦布登陆美洲和达伽马抵达印度之前所做的。600多年前,明朝皇帝派出一支大型商船队,探索与世界其他地方的贸易。这些远征大大展示了明朝的强大和富足。更重要的是,它们给到访过的那些国家留下了持久的影响。

如果基于历史的领土主张可以定义对水域和海洋的管辖权,那么中国人可以指出600年前他们曾在这些海域畅行无阻的事实。

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