Sunday, 25 August 2013

美国曾经推翻的七个政府 The 7 Governments the U.S. Has Overthrown

美国曾经推翻的七个政府
The 7 Governments the U.S. Has Overthrown



一些国家领导人,无论是独裁者还是靠民选上台的人物,被夹在了美苏冷战中间——这一地位最终让他们丢掉乌纱(有些人甚至赔掉了性命),因为美国中央情报局试图把“他们的人”安置到国家元首的位置上。此后,美国政府已公开承认这些秘密行动的其中一些;事实上,中情局在1953年伊朗政变中发挥的作用本周刚刚解密。在其他事件中,中情局的参与仍然只是怀疑。
 
七个被推翻的政权在地图上所处的位置

在下面提到的七场成功的政变中,美国秘密参与遗留下来的问题使得美国的隐秘之手很容易就被说成是如今政治紧张局势中的可怕推手 (更不用说美国对敌对政权实施的系列军事干预、美国支持的叛乱武装集团以及暗杀未遂行动,其中包括用一支爆炸雪茄行刺菲德尔•卡斯特罗)。即使是现在,尽管美国在开罗的影响力减弱,但在埃及比比皆是的阴谋论仍声称,无论是穆斯林兄弟会还是军方支持的政府都是与美国同流合污的。

下面简短介绍一下已经得到证实的中情局在全球插手政变活动的案例。

 
1953年伊朗政变中下台的首相摩萨台

伊朗,1953年:虽然人们一直对中情局在1949年的那场让军政府在叙利亚上台的政变中所发挥的作用进行猜测,但是推翻伊朗首相穆罕默德•摩萨台是美国政府承认的最旱的冷战政变。1953年,当了近两年首相的摩萨台被赶下台,然后被捕,余生都遭到软禁。在就任首相期间,他挑战沙阿(伊朗国王)的权威,将以前由英国公司经营的伊朗石油业收归国有。根据刚刚解密的中情局撰写的这一行动的历史报告,“在冷战处于最高峰,美国在朝鲜卷入了一场未宣战的战争、着手对付苏联和中国支持的军队之时,伊朗可能会受到苏联侵略,迫使美国筹划和执行了TPAJAX(这次政变行动的代号)”。



 
 就任危地马拉总统时的哈科沃•阿本斯
 
危地马拉,1954年:尽筐美国最初支持危地马拉总统哈科沃•阿本斯——美国国务院认为,他利用美国训练和武装的军队而上位,这将是美国的资产——但当阿本斯尝试实施的一连串土地改革威胁到美国联合果品公司控制的非生产用地时,双方之间的关系变糟了。1954年的政变把阿本斯赶下台,接下来军政府取而代之。中情局参与推翻这位危地马拉领导人的机密细节在1999年遭披露,其中包括美国武装叛军和准军事部队,同时美国海军封锁了危地马拉海岸。




 
 刚果民主共和国首任总理帕特里斯•卢蒙巴 
 
刚果,1960年:在美国支持的比利时军队对刚果——后来的刚果(金)——进行的军事干预中,刚果首任总理帕特里斯•卢蒙巴被总统约瑟夫•卡萨武布罢黜,这一暴力干预的目的是为了在该国去殖民化运动之后维持比利时的商业利益。但 是卢蒙巴坚持武装抵抗比利时军队,在与苏联接触请求物资供应之后,他被中情局盯上了。中情局认定他对新成立的蒙博托政府构成威胁。美国在1975年成立了 一个由11名参议员组成的教会委员会,负责监督美国情报部门的秘密行动。该委员会发现,中情局“持续与那些表示想暗杀卢蒙巴的刚果人进行密切接触”,而且 “中情局官员鼓励并且向这些刚果人提供援助,帮助他们对付卢蒙巴”。在利用一条下了毒的手帕对卢蒙巴行刺未遂后,中情局把卢蒙巴的所在位置通报给刚果军队 并且指出需要封锁的道路和潜在的逃跑路线。卢蒙巴在1960年底被俘,并于次年1月被杀害。


 


前多米尼加共和国总统拉菲尔•特鲁希 

多米尼加共和国,1961年:拉菲尔•特鲁希略在多米尼加共和国实行了残暴的独裁统治,包括对生活在这个国家的 成千上万海地人进行种族清洗,以及试图对委内瑞拉总统行刺。最后,他遭到政治异见人士的伏击,一朝丧命。虽然向特鲁希略开枪的人坚持说,"没人让我去杀掉 他"但这位枪手事实上得到了中情局的支持。教会委员会发现,“形形色色的异见人士得到了物质上的支持,包括三支手枪和三支卡宾枪……美国官员知道这些异见 人士图谋推翻特鲁希略,或许是通过暗杀行动”。




 
前多米尼加共和国总统拉菲尔•特鲁希 
 
南越,1963年:美国在1963年时已经深深陷入南越的泥潭之中。随着该国领导人吴庭艳镇压佛教徒异见人士, 美国与吴的关系日益紧张。根据五角大楼的文件,在1963年8月23日,阴谋政变的南越将领们就他们的计划与美国官员接触。美国对此事忽冷忽热,又犹豫不 决了一段时间。这些将领最终在美国的支持下于当年的11月1日抓住并杀害了吴庭艳。根据一些描述,美国提供了4万美元的经费。五角大楼的文件声称“对于针 对吴庭艳的军事政变,美国必须承担其责任,从1963年8月开始,我们批准、认可和鼓励了越南将领的政变努力,并且表示全力支持一个继任政府……我们坚持 在政变的筹谋和实施阶段与他们秘密接触,谋求修改他们的行动计划,并就新政府提出建议。”



 
在军事政变中被推翻的巴西总统若昂•古拉特 
 
巴西,1964年:按美国大使林肯•戈登的话说,由于担心巴西总统若昂•古拉特的政府将会“使巴西成为20世纪60年代的中国”,美国在1964年支持了时任巴西军队参谋长的温贝托•卡斯特略•布兰科领导的政变。 在政变的前几天中情局鼓励举行反对政府的街头集会,向那些支持军方的人提供燃料和“非源自美国的武器”。根据美国国家安全档案馆获得的解密政府记录,时任 美国总统林登•约翰逊对筹划政变的顾问们说:“我认为,我们应该采取可以采取的每一个步骤,随时做好需要做的一切准备。” 巴西军方随后执掌大权直到1985年。

 

 
在政变中身亡的智利总统萨尔瓦多•阿连德 
 
智利,1973年:美国从来都不希望在1970年当选总统的社会主义者候选人萨尔瓦多•阿连德走马上任。理查德•尼克松总统对中情局说:“让(智利)经济惊声尖叫吧。”  中情局曾与三个智利集团携手合作,它们都在1970年阴谋对阿连德发动政变,但在中情局对其代理失去信心后,这些计划土崩瓦解。美国一直企图对智利经济进行 破坏,直到奥吉斯托•皮诺切特将军在1973年领导了一场针对阿连德的军事政变。中情局对1973年11月11日皮诺切特夺取大权的官方描述指出,该局 “意识到军方的政变阴谋,与一些阴谋者保持着情报收集关系,并且中情局不阻止权力接管,而且谋求在1970年煽动政变”。在皮诺切特1973年坐上头把交 椅之后,中情局还发动宣传攻势支持皮诺切特新政权,尽管他们知道他有严重的侵犯人权行径,包括杀害政治异见人士等。






 
英文原文:

The 7 Governments the U.S. Has Overthrown

Several national leaders, both dictators and democratically elected figures, were caught in the middle of the U.S.-Soviet Cold War -- a position that ultimately cost them their office (and, for some, their life) as the CIA tried to install "their man" as head of state. The U.S. government has since publicly acknowledged some of these covert actions; in fact, the CIA's role in the 1953 coup was just declassified this week. In other cases, the CIA's involvement is still only suspected.
 
The legacy of covert U.S. involvement in the seven successful coups below (not to mention a number of U.S. military interventions against hostile regimes and U.S.-supported insurgencies and failed assassination attempts, including a plan to kill Fidel Castro with an exploding cigar), has made the secret hand of the United States a convenient bogeyman in today's political tensions. Even now, despite waning U.S. influence in Cairo, conspiracy theories suggesting that both the Muslim Brotherhood and the military-backed government are in cahoots with the United States abound in Egypt.

Here's a brief history of the confirmed cases of the CIA's globe-spanning campaign of coups.
 
Iran, 1953: Despite continued speculation about the CIA's role in a 1949 coup to install a military government in Syria, the ouster of Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh is the earliest coup of the Cold War that the U.S. government has acknowledged. In 1953, after nearly two years of Mossadegh's premiership, during which time he challenged the authority of the Shah and nationalized an Iranian oil industry previously operated by British companies, he was forced from office and arrested, spending the rest of his life under house arrest. According to the just-declassified CIA-authored history of the operation, "It was the potential ... to leave Iran open to Soviet aggression -- at a time when the Cold War was at its height and when the United Sates was involved in an undeclared war in Korea against forces supported by the U.S.S.R. and China -- that compelled the United States [REDACTED] in planning and executing TPAJAX [the code name of the coup operation]."

Guatemala, 1954: Though the United States was initially supportive of Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz -- the State Department felt his rise through the U.S.-trained and armed military would be an asset -- the relationship soured as Árbenz attempted a series of land reforms that threatened the holdings of the U.S.-owned United Fruit Company. A coup in 1954 forced Árbenz from power, allowing a succession of juntas in his place. Classified details of the CIA's involvement in the ouster of the Guatemalan leader, which included equipping rebels and paramilitary troops while the U.S. Navy blockaded the Guatemalan coast, came to light in 1999.

Congo, 1960: Patrice Lumumba, the first prime minister of the Congo (later the Democratic Republic of the Congo), was pushed out of office by Congolese President Joseph Kasavubu amid the U.S.-supported Belgian military intervention in the country, a violent effort to maintain Belgian business interests after the country's decolonization. But Lumumba maintained an armed opposition to the Belgian military and, after approaching the Soviet Union for supplies, was targeted by the CIA once the agency determined he was a threat to the newly installed government of Joseph Mobutu. The Church Committee, an 11-senator commission established in 1975 to provide oversight of the clandestine actions of the U.S. intelligence community, found that the CIA "continued to maintain close contact with Congolese who expressed a desire to assassinate Lumumba," and that "CIA officers encouraged and offered to aid these Congolese in their efforts against Lumumba." After an aborted assassination attempt against Lumumba involving a poisoned handkerchief, the CIA alerted Congolese troops to Lumumba's location and noted roads to be blocked and potential escape routes. Lumumba was captured in late 1960 and killed in January of the following year.

Dominican Republic, 1961: The brutal dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo, which included the ethnic cleansing of thousands of Haitians in the Dominican Republic and the attempted assassination of the president of Venezuela, ended when he was ambushed and killed by armed political dissidents. Though the gunman who shot Trujillo maintained that "Nobody told me to go and kill Trujillo," he did in fact have the support of the CIA. The Church Committee found that "Material support, consisting of three pistols and three carbines, was supplied to various dissidents.... United States' officials knew that the dissidents intended to overthrow Trujillo, probably by assassination..."

South Vietnam, 1963: The United States was already deeply involved in South Vietnam in 1963, and its relationship with the country's leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, was growing increasingly strained amid Diem's crackdown on Buddhist dissidents. According to the Pentagon Papers, on Aug. 23, 1963, South Vietnamese generals plotting a coup contacted U.S. officials about their plan. After some fits and starts plus a period of U.S. indecision, the generals seized and killed Diem on Nov. 1, 1963 with U.S. support, which by some accounts partially came in the form of $40,000 in CIA funds.

"For the military coup d'etat against Ngo Dinh Diem, the U.S. must accept its full share of responsibility," the Pentagon Papers state. "Beginning in August of 1963 we variously authorized, sanctioned and encouraged the coup efforts of the Vietnamese generals and offered full support for a successor government.... We maintained clandestine contact with them throughout the planning and execution of the coup and sought to review their operational plans and proposed new government."

Brazil, 1964: Fearing that the government of Brazilian President Joao Goulart would, in the words of U.S. Ambassador Lincoln Gordon, "make Brazil the China of the 1960s," the United States backed a 1964 coup led by Humberto Castello Branco, then chief of staff of the Brazilian army. In the days leading up to the coup, the CIA encouraged street rallies against the government and provided fuel and "arms of non-US origin" to those backing the military. "I think we ought to take every step that we can, be prepared to do everything that we need to do," President Lyndon Johnson told his advisors planning the coup, according to declassified government records obtained by the National Security Archive. The Brazilian military went on to govern the country until 1985.
 
Chile, 1973: The United States never wanted Salvador Allende, the socialist candidate elected president of Chile in 1970, to assume office. President Richard Nixon told the CIA to "make the [Chilean] economy scream," and the agency worked with three Chilean groups, each plotting a coup against Allende in 1970. The agency went so far as to provide weapons, but the plans fell apart after the CIA lost confidence in its proxies. U.S. attempts to disrupt the Chilean economy continued until Gen. Augusto Pinochet led a military coup against Allende in 1973. The CIA's official account of the seizure of power on Sept. 11, 1973, notes that the agency "was aware of coup-plotting by the military, had ongoing intelligence collection relationships with some plotters, and -- because CIA did not discourage the takeover and had sought to instigate a coup in 1970 -- probably appeared to condone it." The CIA also conducted a propaganda campaign in support of Pinochet's new regime after he took office in 1973, despite knowledge of severe human rights abuses, including the murder of political dissidents.

 

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