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Monday, 6 May 2013

Full Text of Human Rights Record of the United States in 2012

Full Text of Human Rights Record of the United States in 2012
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China published a report titled "Human Rights Record of the United States in 2012" on April 21, 2013.
Following is the full text: 
Foreword
The State Department of the United States recently released its Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, posing as "the world judge of human rights" again. As in previous years, the reports are full of carping and irresponsible remarks on the human rights situation in more than 190 countries and regions including China. However, the U.S. turned a blind eye to its own woeful human rights situation and never said a word about it. Facts show that there are serious human rights problems in the U.S. which incur extensive criticism in the world. The Human Rights Record of the U.S. in 2012 is hereby prepared to reveal the true human rights situation of the U.S. to people across the world by simply laying down some facts.
The human rights situation in the U.S. in 2012 has deeply impressed people in the following aspects:
-- Firearms-related crimes posed serious threat to the lives and personal security of citizens in the U.S. Some shootings left astonishing casualties, such as the school shooting in Oakland, the Century 16 theater shooting in Colorado and the school shooting in Connecticut.
-- In the U.S., elections could not fully embody the real will of its citizens. Political contributions had, to a great extent, influenced the electoral procedures and policy direction. During the 2012 presidential election, the voter turnout was only 57.5 percent.
-- In the U.S., citizens' civil and political rights were further restricted by the government. The government expanded the scope of eavesdropping and censoring on personal telecommunications. The police often abused their power, resulting in increasing complaints and charges for infringement upon civil rights. The proportion of women in the U.S. who fell victims of domestic violence and sexual assault kept increasing.
-- The U.S. has become one of the developed countries with the greatest income gap. In 2011, the Gini index was 0.477 in the U.S. and about 9 million people were registered as unemployed; About 16.4 million children lived in poverty and, for the first time in history, public schools reported more than one million homeless children and youth.
-- There was serious sex, racial and religious discrimination in the U.S. Indigenous people suffered serious racial discrimination and their poverty rate doubled the national average. A movie produced by a U.S. director and aired online was deemed insulting to the Prophet Mohammed, sparking protests by the Muslims worldwide.
-- The U.S. seriously infringed upon human rights of other nations. In 2012, U.S. military operations in Yemen, Afghanistan and Pakistan caused massive civilian casualties. U.S. soldiers had also severely blasphemed against local residents' religion by burning copies of the Muslim holy book, the Koran, and insulting bodies of the dead. There was a huge rise in birth defects in Iraq since the war against Iraq with military actions in which American forces used metal contaminant-releasing white phosphorus shells and depleted uranium bombs.
-- The U.S. was not able to effectively participate in international cooperation on human rights. To date, the U.S. remains a country which has not participated in or ratified a series of core UN conventions on human rights, such as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
I. On Life and Personal Security
The U.S. was haunted by serious violent crimes in 2012 with frequent occurrence of firearms-related criminal cases. Its people's lives and personal security were not duly protected.
According to statistics released by the FBI in September 2012, an estimated 1,203,564 violent crimes occurred in the U.S. in 2011, about 386.3 violent crimes per 100,000 inhabitants. Aggravated assaults accounted for 62.4 percent of violent crimes reported to law enforcement. Robbery reached 29.4 percent of violent crimes, forcible rape accounted for 6.9 percent, and murder amounted to 1.2 percent of estimated violent crimes in 2011. And firearms were used in 67.7 percent of the nation' s murders, 41.3 percent of robberies, and 21.2 percent in all crimes in the U.S.
Americans are the most heavily armed people in the world per capita. According to a CNN report on July 23, 2012, there were an estimated 270 million guns in the hands of civilians in the U.S. and more than 100,000 people were shot by guns each year. In 2010, there were more than 30,000 deaths caused by firearms. However, the U.S. government has done little in gun control. In 2008 and 2010 landmark Supreme Court rulings on two firearms-related cases dramatically diminished the authority of state and local governments to limit gun ownership. Roughly half of the 50 U.S. states have adopted laws allowing gun owners to carry their guns openly in most public places. And many states have 'stand your ground' laws that allow people to kill if they come under threat, even, in some cases, if they can escape the threat without violence. According to an article on the website of the Hindu on August 7, 2012, in population-adjusted terms, civilians in some parts of the U.S. are more likely to become the victim of a firearms-related murder than their counterparts in war-torn regions like Iraq or Afghanistan. On January 16, 2013, the U.S. president announced 23 steps on gun control to take immediately without congressional approval. And the president signed three of the measures. But the public opinion generally believes that the gun-control measures will encounter great resistance.
According to a report on the USA Today's website on October 17, 2012, the violent crime rate went up 17 percent in 2011. Firearms-related violent crimes posed as one of the most serious threats to the lives and personal security of the U.S. citizens. Statistics showed that an estimated 14,612 people fell victims of murder in 2011 and 9,903 of them were firearms-related murder victims (Website of the Congressional Research service, www.fas.org, November 14, 2012). The U.S. witnessed more firearms-related violent crimes in 2012. According to NYPD statistics published on September 2, 2012, there had been 1,001 shootings so far that year in New York, about 3.4 percent more than the 968 reported at the same time the previous year (NY Daily News, September 9, 2012). According to statistics from the website of Chicago Police Department, there were 2,460 shooting incidents in Chicago in 2012, up 10 percent year on year. Some of the shootings were quite bloody and terrifying, such as the movie theater shooting in Colorado and the school shooting in Connecticut.
On July 20, 2012, James E. Holmes, 24, entered a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, carrying an AR-15 rifle, a 12-gauge shotgun and at least one handgun. He sprayed people at the theater who were watching a movie, leaving at least 12 dead and 59 wounded. A witness said: "He was just literally shooting everyone, like hunting season." According to a CNN report on July 21, law enforcement documents showed that the weapons were purchased legally by Holmes at sporting goods stores in the Denver area over a six-month period before the shooting happened. According to a CNN report on July 23, in wake of the shooting rampage in Colorado, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg said: "I don't think there's any other developed country in the world that has remotely the problem we have."
On December 14, 2012, 20-year-old Adam Lanza fatally shot 20 children and six adult staff members at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. He committed suicide after that. But before he came to the school, he had shot and killed his mother. The incident was the second deadliest school shooting in the U.S. history, after the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre which left 32 killed.
II. On Civil and Political Rights
The recent years have seen closer surveillance of American citizens by the U.S. government. In the country, abuse of suspects and jail inmates is common occurrence, and equal suffrage enjoyable by citizens continues to be undermined.
The U.S. government continues to step up surveillance of ordinary Americans, restricting and reducing the free sphere of the American society to a considerable extent, and seriously violating the freedom of citizens. The U.S. congress approved a bill in 2012 that authorizes the government to conduct warrantless wiretapping and electronic communications monitoring, a move that violates people's rights to privacy. According to a report carried on May 4, 2012 by the CNET website, the FBI general counsel' s office has drafted a proposed law requiring that social-networking websites and providers of VoIP, instant messaging, and Web e-mail to alter their code to ensure their products are wiretap-friendly (news.cnet.com, May 4, 2012). Documents released by the American Civil Liberties Union on September 27, 2012, reveal that federal law enforcement agencies are increasingly monitoring American's electronic communications. Between 2009 and 2011, the Justice Department' s combined number of original orders for "pen registers" and "trap and trace devices" used to spy on phones increased by 60 percent, from 23,535 in 2009 to 37,616 in 2011. The number of authorizations the Justice Department received to use these devices on individuals' email and network data increased 361 percent between 2009 and 2011. The National Security Agency collects purely domestic communications of Americans in a "significant and systematic" way, intercepting and storing 1.7 billion emails, phone calls and other types of communications every day. A Wired investigation published in March 2012 revealed the NSA is currently constructing a huge data center in Utah, meant to store and analyze "vast swaths of the world' s communications" from foreign and domestic networks (The Guardian, July 10, 2012). As the American Civil Liberties Union explained in its December 2011 report, the U.S. could potentially use military drones to spy on its citizens (Fars News Agency, June 26, 2012).
On September 17, 2012, or the first anniversary of Occupy Wall Street's initial demonstration, confrontations between protesters and police around the Wall Street resulted in the arrests of more than 100 people (The New York Times, September 17, 2012). The U.S. journalist community is worried about the continued toughening up of legislation on mass media. It is frequent that journalists in the U.S. lose their jobs because of "politically incorrect" opinions (www.mid.ru, October 22, 2012).
Complaints and allegations of American police violating rights of suspects and jail inmates are going up. A litany of lawsuits was brought against the New York City Police Department, with police officers charged with violating civil rights in law enforcement. According to a report carried by the Chicago Tribune on March 6, 2012, jail inmate Eugene Gruber, 51, was paralyzed a day after he walked into a jail where he was believed to have been maltreated. He died of injury four months after the jail incident. Another report by the Chicago Tribune on March 21, 2012 showed that suspect Darrin Hanna suffered trauma from physical restraint and Taser shocks during a struggle with North Chicago police and died a week later. The CNN reported on May 17, 2012 that some 9.6 percent of the prisoners in state prisons are sexually victimized during confinement, more than double the rate cited in a report on the subject in 2008. In Texas state prisons, many inmates are housed in triple-digit temperatures in Fahrenheit. Four inmates -- Larry Gene McCollum, 58; Alexander Togonidze, 44; Michael David Martone, 57; and Kenneth Wayne James, 52 -- died in summer of 2011 from heat stroke, and at least five others were believed to have died from heat-related causes (www.texascivilrightsproject.org, July 7, 2012).
American citizens have never really enjoyed common and equal suffrage. Despite an increase of over eight million citizens in the eligible population in the U.S. presidential election of 2012, voter turnout registered a drop of five million from four years before, with only 57.5 percent of eligible citizens voting (bipartisanpolicy.org, November 8, 2012). A February 2012 report by the Pew Center said America's voter registration system is plagued with errors and inefficiencies that undermine voter confidence and fuel partisan disputes over the integrity of the country's elections (www.pewstates.org).
The U.S. election is like money wars, with trends of the country's policies deeply influenced by political donations. The 2012 election had an estimated cost totalling six billion U.S. dollars. The Obama campaign and the Democratic camp raised 1.06 billion dollars, and the Romney campaign and the Republican camp raised a total of 954 million dollars (www.standard.co.uk, November 6, 2012). Both groups have funding support from business giants. An opinion poll showed that nearly 90 percent of Americans believe the 2012 election is marked by too many political donations from business circles, which will mean the increased influence of the rich over the country's policy-making (The International Herald Leader [Chinese newspaper], November 16, 2012). A Harvard professor said America' s political system is sinking into serious crisis as it is under manipulation of interest groups and their sponsors. Election donations give a loose rein to all other defects. American politics are corroding the people, making them increasingly dependent on interest groups (Internationale Politik, November & December issue, 2012).
Citing a world-known analyst, the Christian Science Monitor website in a report on November 5, 2012 said America's trouble-prone voting machines, the risk of tampering in those machines, the lack of transparency in vote tabulation, and then the Electoral College system, combine to give the country an election system that leaves much to be desired.
III. On Economic and Social Rights
To date, the U.S. government has not approved the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was already ratified by 160 countries. Many American citizens could not enjoy the internationally-recognized economic and social rights.
Unemployment in the U.S. has long been high. A huge number of Americans newly joined the unemployed population in recent years. Figures released by the U.S. Department of Labor on May 4, 2012 showed that in April 2012 the unemployment rate was 8.1 percent, with 12.5 million people unemployed. Citing a report, the Huffington Post website in a story dated December 3, 2012 said nearly 6.5 million U.S. teens and young adults are neither in school nor working, and the employment rate for teens between the ages of 16 and 19 has fallen 42 percent over the last decade. The Los Angeles Times in a report published on April 27, 2012 said the unemployment rate for veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq is 10.3 percent, and for veterans aged 24 and under, the rate is 29.1 percent. It is also hard for college graduates to find jobs. The Associated Press reported on April 22, 2012 that 53.6 percent of bachelor' s degree-holders under the age of 25 in America were jobless or underemployed in 2011. Of the nearly 20 million people employed by the American food industry, just 40 percent are earning enough to put them over the local poverty line (www.huffingtonpost.com, June 6, 2012).
Poverty in the U.S. has increasingly worsened since the economic crisis in 2008. America' s poverty rate in 2011 was 15 percent, with 46.2 million people in poverty, according to the U.S. Census Bureau data released on September 12, 2012. Almost 18 million American homes struggled to find enough to eat in 2011, including 6.8 million households that worried about having enough money to buy food several months out of the year (www.ers.usda.gov, September 5, 2012). A report carried by the Huffington Post on October 30, 2012 indicated that the U.S. has a staggering 22 percent of its children living in poverty. The U.S. is one of those that have the highest child poverty rates of all developed nations.
The gap between the rich and poor is growing in the U.S. over the years. The U.S. has the fourth worst income inequality compared to other developed countries, according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. America's Gini index was 0.477 in 2011 and income inequality increased by 1.6 percent between 2010 and 2011, indicating a widened rich-poor gap. Between 2010 and 2011, the share of aggregate income increased 1.6 percent for the quintile with the highest household income, and increased 4.9 percent for the top five percent households. The aggregate share of income declined for the middle quintile. The changes in the shares of aggregate income for the lowest two quintiles were not statistically significant (www.census.gov, September 12, 2012).
A huge number of people are homeless in the U.S. According to a report released by National Alliance to End Homelessness on January 17, 2012, the nation had 636,017 homeless people in 2011, including 107,148 chronically homeless people. There were 21 homeless people per 10,000 people in the general population. Nearly four in 10 homeless people were unsheltered. The unsheltered population was 243,701 in 2011, up 2 percent from 2009. In April 2012, the New York City homeless shelter population was 10 percent higher than the previous year (www.coalitionforthehomeless.org, June 8, 2012). Homeless people suffer discrimination and assaults. Citing a survey of 234 cities, a USA Today report dated February 15, 2012 said 24 percent of the U.S. cities prohibit begging, 22 percent prohibit loitering, 16 percent labels sleeping in public places as illegal. From 1999 through 2010, the homeless faced 1,184 acts of reported violence resulting in 312 deaths.
The U.S. is among the few developed countries without health insurance covering its whole population. A considerable number of Americans have no access to necessary healthcare services when in illness because of having no health insurance. The number of people without health insurance coverage was 48.6 million in 2011, accounting for 15.7 percent of the population (www.census.gov, September 12, 2012). A Huffington Post report on November 13, 2012 said about 115,000 women in the U.S. lose their private health insurance each year in the wake of divorce, largely because they have trouble paying premiums for private insurance. A study, released on June 20, 2012, by the consumer advocacy group Families USA, estimates that a total of 26,100 people aged 25 to 64 died for lack of health coverage in 2010, up 31 percent from 18,000 in 2000 (www.reuters.com, June 20, 2012).
IV. On Racial Discrimination
The long-existing racial discrimination prevalent in the U.S. society sees no improvements, and ethnic minorities do not enjoy equal political, economic and social rights.
Ethnic Americans' rights to vote are limited. During the presidential election in November 2012, some Asian-American voters were obstructed at voting stations and received with discriminations (The China Press, November 8, 2012). The United Nations Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur used to lodge a joint accusation against the U.S. of failing to fully guarantee the rights to vote of African-Americans and Hispanics. The January/February 2013 edition of the Boston Review reported that as of 2010, more than 5.85 million American citizens were disenfranchised because of criminal convictions, and more than two million African-Americans currently are stripped of their right to vote. The U.S. attorney general also acknowledged, as the rights to vote of some ethnic Americans were restricted by laws requiring proof of identity, some people are as a matter of fact stripped of such rights (The Guardian, May. 30, 2012).
Ethnic Americans are discriminated against in the job market, and their economic well-being worsens as a result. According to statistics from the U.S. Department of Labor, the unemployment rate of whites was registered 7.0 percent in Oct. 2012, 14.3 percent for African-Americans and 10.0 percent for Hispanics. The average period of unemployment for ethnic minorities is notably longer than that for whites. Asians are unemployed on average for 27.7 weeks, African-Americans for 27 weeks (Desert News, December 4, 2012). According to data from the federal Labor Department, over half of all African-Americans and non-Hispanic blacks in New York city, who were old enough to work, had no jobs in 2012, and it takes them almost a full year on average to find another job (Madame Noire, June 21, 2012). Employment discrimination is the main reason behind income disparity and poverty. According to statistics released by the U.S. Census Bureau on September 12, 2012, the median household income for African-Americans was 32,229 U.S. dollars in 2011, less than 60 percent of that of non-Hispanic whites; and the poverty rate for African-Americans stood at 27.6 percent, almost three times of that of non-Hispanic whites.
Racial discrimination is rampant in the field of law enforcement and justice. The Reuters website reported on July 3, 2012, police tend to be more lenient to whites. Out of more than 685,000 police stops in New York City in 2011, more than 85 percent of the stopped were black or Hispanic. Ethnic Americans are often offended by law enforcement authorities. A 21-year-old black man in Arkansas was searched and put into a police car, and later was found shot in the head while handcuffed (www. telegraph.co.uk, August 8, 2012). The incidence where a 28-year-old black man, Mohamed Bah, was shot dead by New York police outraged the black community (NYDailyNews.com, September 26, 2012). An article on the website of Texas Civil Rights Project on July 24, 2012 said the Austin police' excessive use of force had led to two fatal police shootings of minority suspects since 2011. The president of the Texas Civil Rights Project said that the shooting death of a dog even received more thorough and careful investigation than the death of a black victim. The New York Times columnist Charles M. Blow wrote an article on January 14, 2013, saying "the idea that progress toward racial harmony would or should be steady and continuous is fraying. And the pillars of the institution -- the fundamental devaluation of dark skin and strained justifications for the unconscionable -- have proved surprisingly resilient."
Religious discrimination is rapidly on the rise, with an increase in insults and attacks against Muslims. Muslims account for less than one percent of the U.S. population, but are involved in 14 percent of religious discrimination cases under investigation of the federal government, and 25 percent of employment-related discrimination cases (www. sinovision.net, March 29, 2011). In September, 2012, a U.S. film director made a film that is insulting to the Prophet Muhammad and posted it online, which triggered waves of protests in the Muslim world. In Houston, a dead pig was left in front of a mosque (abclocal.go.com, December 5, 2012). The U.S. Navy special operations force was reported to use images of gun-holding Muslim women as training targets (www.nydailynews.com, July 3, 2012). The 57-year-old Muslim, Bashir Ahmad, was stabbed and bitten outside a Mosque by a suspect who shouted anti-Muslim expletive during the attack (Wall Street Journal, November 19, 2012). Since the September 11 attacks, the U.S. Justice Department has investigated more than 800 incidents of violence, vandalism and arson against people believed to be Muslim, Arab or South Asian (www. reuters.com, March 29, 2011).
Apartheid in fact still exists in the American society. New York Times reported on August 6, 2012 that, the proportion of non-Hispanic black residents on the Upper East Side is only 2.7 percent, and whites 81 percent. Local co-op boards can reject black buyers without giving a reason, and some Upper East Side co-ops have a reputation for rejecting black buyers. A study found that the New York area was the second most segregated for black people and the third most segregated for Hispanic and Asian residents. A superintendent of NASA Real Estate Corporation was sued for refusing to show three African-Americans any openings, claiming no apartments were available for rent, but showing vacancies to white individuals who inquired about the same apartments less than an hour after turning down black renters, saying, "You look like nice people. That's why I show you." (queenscourier.com, December 12, 2012) Furthermore, studies found a rising tide of apartheid in the U.S. workplace. Nineteen out of the 58 surveyed industries showed a trend toward racial re-segregation between white men and black men (www.washingtonpost.com, October 25, 2012).
Racial relationship is in tension, and hate crimes take place frequently. The Associated Press reported on October 28, 2012, citing a latest poll, that 51 percent of Americans now express explicit anti-African-American attitudes, three percentage points higher than in 2008. The abc.go.com reported on November 19, 2012, three shop owners of Middle Eastern descent were shot dead in four months in Brooklyn, New York, and the police cannot rule out the possibility of the homicides being racially motivated. Two young white men from Mississippi killed a black man by running a truck over him. The two, since 2011, have frequently assaulted and attacked African-Americans in and around Jackson, Mississippi, using beer bottles, sling shots and motor vehicles, and they often bragged about their exploits (Reuters, December 5, 2012). A white gunman named Wade Michael Page killed six Sikh worshippers at their temple, and his motivation was linked to neo-Nazi propaganda, and he was suspected to be a white supremacist (edition. cnn.com, August 10, 2012).
Native Americans' rights are not properly guaranteed. In 2012, the United Nations Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur on racism, Mutuma Ruteere, pointed out Navajos, a branch of Native Americans, faced racial discrimination, including the lack of access to justice and legal remedies (United Nations document number A/67/328). United Nations Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous people, James Anaya, said the ability of Native Americans to use and access their sacred places is often curtailed by mining, logging, hydroelectric and other development projects. He cited research figures of relevant institutions, saying Native Americans' poverty rates nearly double the national average, and their life expectancy is 5.2 years less than the national average. Thirteen percent of Native Americans hold a basic university degree, much lower than the national average, 28 percent. Indigenous women are more than twice as likely as all other women to be victims of violence and one in three of them will be raped during her lifetime (United Naitons document number A/HRC/21/47/Add.1).
The rights of illegal immigrants are violated. Deaths often occur in immigration detention centers. United Nations Human Rights Council Special Rapporteur Christof Heyns said in his report that deaths occurred in prison-like conditions where detention was neither necessary nor appropriate, and where no proper medical care was provided (United Nations document number A/HRC/20/22/Add.3). U.N human rights experts and South Florida Haitian rights advocates call for the U.S. to suspend all deportations to Haiti, saying the deportations may constitute a human rights violation, and may place the Haitians in a life-threatening position (The Miami Herald, June 6, 2012).
V. On the rights of women and children
The U.S. remains one of a few countries in the world that have not ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women or the Convention on the Rights of the Child. It faces prominent problems in protecting the rights of women and children.
Women face discrimination in employment and payment. Women made up about two-thirds of all workers in the U.S. who were paid minimum wage or less in 2011 and 61 percent of full-time minimum wage workers, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.womensenews.org, December 11, 2012). On average, women have to work as far as April 17 into 2012 to catch up with that men earned in 2011, meaning women earned 77 cents to the male dollar. African American women earn 62 cents to the male dollar, Latinas 54 cents. In some states, women of color earn less than half as their male counterparts. Women in Wyoming, the lowest ranking state, earn just 64 cents on the male dollar (www.womensenews.org, April 30, 2012). Voters in Oklahoma approved an amendment to the state's constitution to end affirmative action programs in state government that had been designed to increase the hiring of minorities and women in the state's 115 agencies (www.articles.chicagotribune.com, November 7, 2012). The problems that pregnant women and new mothers face on the job are very real. Employers routinely ignore mandate in the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, and are forcing pregnant women out of the workplace (www.edition.cnn.com, November 26, 2012). A Houston mother says she was fired from her job at a collection agency after asking to bring a breast pump into the office so she'd have plenty of fresh breast milk for her newborn. A new Connecticut mom says her new employer asked her to resign after she told them she was pregnant (www.latimes.com, February 8, 2012).
The poverty rate among women is higher than males. The National Women's Law Center (NWLC) announced that the poverty rate for women in 2011 was 14.6 percent, compared to men's 10.9 percent. Women are more likely to live in poverty and about 40 percent of women who head families live in poverty, according to the NWLC. Another report on the plight of female retirees also notes that the poverty rate among retired women is 50 percent higher than their male counterparts (womensenews.org, September 17, 2012).
Women are the victims of violence and sexual assaults. An average of three women in the U.S. lose their lives every day as a result of domestic violence (www.dccadv.org, October 1, 2012). A national census of domestic violence agencies in September 2011 found that more than 67,000 victims were served in a single day (www.womensenews.org, July 17, 2012). In 2010, the arrest rate for rape was 24 percent in the U.S. (www.thedailybeast.com, April 9, 2012). According to the Report on Violence against Women, its Causes and Consequences, submitted by the Special Rapporteur to the General Assembly in 2012, most prison staff in the U.S. is not adequately trained to prevent or respond to inmate sexual assaults, and prison rape often goes unreported and untreated (United Nations document number A/67/227).
Women in the U.S. forces are the victims of widespread sexual abuse, leading to media allegation that the US military has a culture of rape (www.aljazeera.com, August 4, 2012). Around 79 percent of women serving in the military reported experiences of sexual harassment. Military sexual trauma often leads to debilitating conditions such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and major depression (www.servicewomen.org). That Air Force drill instructor Luis Walker was accused of raping and sexually assaulting 10 female trainees is the biggest sex scandal to hit the U.S. military since the 1990s (www.reuters.com, July 21, 2012). In 2011, nearly 3,200 rapes and sexual assaults were officially reported, but the Pentagon admits that represents just 15 percent of all incidents. A military survey revealed that one in five women in the US forces has been sexually assaulted, but most do not report it. Nearly half said that they "did not want to cause trouble in their unit" (www.aljazeera.com, August 4, 2012).
The health of female minority groups is worrying. A media report in June 2012 said rate of HIV infection in heterosexual African American women in the poorest neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. nearly doubled the 6.3 percent infection rate two years before. Officials said 90 percent of all women with HIV in the city are black (www.washingtonpost.com, June 21, 2012). Sixty-six percent of the women newly infected with HIV each year are black, even though African-American women represent only 14 percent of the U.S. female population. The national age-adjusted death rate for black women in the U.S. is nearly 15 times higher than that observed for HIV-infected white women (www.newswise.com, March 7, 2012). Minority women in the U.S. are more likely to die during or soon after childbirth than white women, according to a report posted on the website of the Chicago Tribune on August 3, 2012. For every 100,000 babies born to white women, between seven and nine moms die from complications related to pregnancy. In comparison, 32 to 35 black women die for every 100,000 live babies. Deaths among Hispanic and Asian women - born in the U.S. and abroad - are closer to rates for white women at around 10 per 100,000.
Children in the U.S. are not blessed with enough protection for their personal safety and freedom. According to a report posted on the website of the Daily Telegraph on December 16, 2012, the slaughter of children by gunfire in the U.S. is 25 times the rate of the 20 next largest industrial countries in the world combined. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children says at least 100,000 children across the country are trafficked each year (www.usatoday.com, September 27, 2012).
Child sexual abuse is a widespread public health problem. Research indicates that 20 percent of adult females and 5 to 15 percent adult males experienced sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence, according to a report posted on the website of www.preventchildabuse.org on November 5, 2012. In 2010, 63,527 children in the U.S. were victims of child sexual abuse. According to a report by the CNN on October 18, 2012, 1,247 "ineligible volunteer files" of the Boy Scout released that year identified more than 1,000 leaders and volunteers banned from Boy Scout after being accused of sexual or inappropriate conduct with boys from 1965 to 1985. Priests and leaders of the Boy Scouts had shielded abusers, according to the report. Former Pennsylvania State assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky was convicted of abusing 10 children over 15 years (www.usatoday.com, October 10, 2012). In 2012, several religious figures were found to have sexually assaulted children. In July 2012, Roman Catholic monsignor William Lynn was sentenced to six years in prison for allowing a priest suspected of sexual misconduct with a minor to have continued contact with children (the Wall Street Journal, July 24, 2012). In September, a Roman Catholic bishop in Kansas City was found guilty of failing to tell authorities about child pornography that was produced by a priest under his supervision (the Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2012).
The number of homeless children increases sharply in the U.S. and many children are stricken by poverty. For the first time in history, public schools reported more than one million homeless children and youth, according to data released by the U.S. Department of Education on June 27, 2012. This total does not include homeless children and youth who were not enrolled in public preschool programs and those identified by school officials. Forty-four states reported school year-to-year increases in the number of homeless students, with 15 states reporting increases of 20 percent or more. The number of homeless children enrolled in public schools has increased 57 percent since the 2006-2007 school year. In Michigan, the number of homeless children enrolled in public schools had increased 315 percent between 2008 and 2011 (www.nlchp.org, June 27, 2012). The number of children in New York city's shelters hit 19,000 by September 2012. Francheska Luciano, 14, said living in shelter was "like living in hell." (www.nydailynews.com, September 9, 2012) The U.S. Department of Education said in a report that only 52 percent of identified homeless students who took standardized tests were proficient in reading, and only 51 percent passed the math portion. Homeless students were also found to be more likely to drop out of school and less likely to graduate from high school than their classmates (www.neatoday.org, Nov. 28, 2012). According to "America's Children in Brief: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2012," 22 percent of the children aged 0 to 17, or 16.4 million kids, live in poverty in 2010 (www.csmonitor.com, July 17, 2012). Fourteen states saw increases in child poverty between 2010 and 2011 (usatoday.com, September 23, 2012). Nevada saw a 38 percent increase in child poverty over the past decade (www.csmonitor.com, August 17, 2011).
VI. On U.S. Violations of Human Rights against Other Nations
Since the end of the Cold War, the U.S. has waged wars on other countries most frequently. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, both started by the U.S., have caused massive civilian casualties. From 2001 to 2011, the U.S.-led "war on terror" killed between 14,000 and 110,000 per year, said an article posted on the website of Stop the War Coalition on June 14, 2012 (stopwar.org.uk, June 14, 2012). The UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) tallied at least 10,292 non-combatants killed from 2007 to July 2011. The Iraq Body Count project records approximately 115,000 civilians killed in the cross-fire from 2003 to August 2011. According to the article, beyond the two states under occupation, the "War on Terror" has spilled into a number of neighboring countries including Pakistan, Yemen and Somalia, killing a great many civilians there. From 2004 to the time the article was written, a minimum of 484 civilians, including 168 children, were killed in strikes that occurred in Pakistan. It was also reported by the media that strikes resulted in 56 civilian deaths in Yemen, the article added. A news report, posted on BBC's website on September 25, 2012, pointed at recurrent U.S. drone attacks in the border regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan (www.bbc.co.uk, September 25, 2012). "Just one in 50 victims of America's deadly drone strikes in Pakistan are terrorists - while the rest are innocent civilians," said an article posted on September 25, 2012, on the website of the Daily Mail (www.dailymail.co.uk, September 25, 2012).
U.S. soldiers in Afghanistan also kill civilians for no reason. U.S. soldier Robert Bales was reported to walk out of a military base in the southern province of Kandahar at 3 o'clock on the night of March 11, 2012 and killed 17 civilians, including nine children. Bales split the slaughter into two episodes, returning to his base after the first attack and later slipping away to kill again. He first came to one family in a nearby village and shot a man dead, which scared others in the family to hide in neighborhood. Then he went to a second family and shot dead three people and injured six. Afterwards, he returned to his base and left for another village after chatting with one soldier at the base. In the village, he broke into a family and shot dead more than 10 people who were sound asleep. After the massacre, he collected some of the bodies and burned them.( The Agence France-Presse, March 23, 2012; The Associated Press, March 24, 2012; The Huffington Post, November, 11, 2012)
U.S.-led military operations have also brought forth ecological disasters. An article posted on the website of The Independent on October 14, 2012 cited a study that reported a "staggering rise" in birth defects among Iraqi children conceived in the aftermath of the war (www.independent.co.uk, October 14, 2012). Steve Kretzmann, director of Oil Change International, said that the Iraq war was responsible for at least 141 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) from March 2003 through December 2007, according to a piece posted on December 21, 2009 on coto2.wordpress.com (coto2.wordpress.com, December 21, 2009). "The war emits more than 60 percent of all countries," said Kretzmann. A study, cited by an article posted on the website of The Independent on October 14, 2012, linked a huge rise that Iraq had recorded since the war in birth defects with military actions in which American forces used metal contaminant-releasing white phosphorus shells. It found that in the Iraqi city of Fallujah, which saw two of the heaviest battles during the Iraq war, more than half of all babies surveyed were born with a birth defect between 2007 and 2010. Before the war, the figure was more like one in 10. More than 45 percent of all pregnancies surveyed ended in miscarriage in the two years after 2004, up from the previous 10 percent (www.independent.co.uk, October 14, 2012).
U.S. soldiers have also severely insulted Afghan people's dignity and blasphemed against their religion. The AFP reported on September 24, 2012 that during a counter-insurgency operation in July 2011, four U.S. Marines urinated on three bloodied bodies of dead Taliban fighters, and one said, "Have a great day, buddy," to one of the dead. A videotape depicting their actions was recorded and later circulated on the Internet (The Agence France-Presse, September 24, 2012). In February 2012, U.S. troops at Bagram air base provoked public indignation by taking a batch of religious materials, including 500 copies of the Koran, to the incinerator, said a news story posted on the website of the Washington Post on August 27, 2012 (www.washingtonpost.com, August 27, 2012).
The U.S. army has for long detained foreigners illegally at the Guantanamo prison. By January 2012, 171 people were still held there, said an article posted on the website of Watching America on January 17, 2012. They were denied the rights accorded to prisoners of war under the Geneva Conventions, and savagely tortured (www.watchingamerica, January 17, 2012). American authorities have revealed that, in order to obtain confessions, some of the few being tried (only in military courts) have been tortured by waterboarding more than 100 times or intimidated with semiautomatic weapons, power drills or threats to sexually assault their mothers, said an article posted on the website of the New York Times on June 24, 2012 (www.nytimes.com, June 24, 2012). Media reported that in September 2012, a 32-year-old Yemeni named Adnan Farhan Abdul Latif died at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, the ninth to have died there while in custody. He had been held at the detention camp since it was established in January 2002, without being charged with any crime (abcnews.go.com). On January 23, 2012, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay spoke out against the failure by the U.S. to close the Guantanamo Bay detention facility and to ensure accountability for serious violations - including torture - that took place there (www.un.org, January 23, 2012). A noted American wrote in an article that the American government's counterterrorism policies "are now clearly violating at least 10 of the declaration's 30 articles, including the prohibition against 'cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment'" (www.nytimes.com, June 24, 2012).
The U.S. refuses to acknowledge "the right to development," which is a common concern among the majority of countries. In September 2012, the 21st session of the United Nations Human Rights Council (HRC) adopted a resolution on "the right to development." Except an abstention vote from the U.S., all the HRC members voted for the resolution. The 67th session of the UN General Assembly overwhelmingly adopted the 21st consecutive resolution, by a recorded vote of 188 in favor to three against with two abstentions, calling for an end to the U.S.' 50-plus years of economic blockade against Cuba. One of the three dissenting votes was from the U.S. (United Nations document number GA/11311)

2012年美国的人权纪录(全文)

2012年美国的人权纪录(全文)

来源:雅虎资讯
作者:中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
日期:2013年4月21日

国务院新闻办公室4月21日发表《2012年美国的人权纪录》。



导 言

以“人权卫士”自居的美国政府在刚刚发布的《2012年国别人权报告》中,又对包括中国在内的190多个国家的人权状况指手画脚、说三道四,而偏偏对其本国存在的人权问题避而不谈、只字未提。事实说明,美国存在着严重人权问题,并广受世人诟病。在这里,仅对2012年美国的人权问题做些实录,以便世人从中略窥美国人权状况之一斑。 2012年美国存在的人权问题在以下几个方面使人印象深刻:

——美国持枪犯罪严重威胁公民的生命与人身安全。2012年,先后发生奥克兰校园枪击案、科罗拉多“世纪16”电影院枪击案和康涅狄格州校园枪击案,伤亡人数震惊世界。

——美国选举不能充分体现全体公民的真正意志。政治献金在很大程度上影响了选举过程和政策走向。在2012年美国大选中,仅有57.5%的选民参加了投票。

——美国政府进一步限制了公民和政治权利。不断扩大对个人通信的监听和审查范围。警察经常滥用职权,导致侵犯公民权利的投诉和指控不断上升。女性遭受家庭暴力和性侵犯比例持续增加。

——美国已成为发达国家中贫富悬殊最大的国家之一。2011年美国基尼系数为0.477,失业人数高达900万人;约有1640万儿童生活在贫困之中,公立学校报告的无家可归的儿童和青少年数量首次超过100万。

——美国存在严重的性别歧视、种族歧视和宗教歧视。土著人面临严重的种族歧视,其贫困率是全国平均水平的两倍;美国一名导演拍摄并在网上播放的侮辱伊斯兰教先知的电影引发了全球穆斯林的抗议浪潮。

——美国严重侵害他国人权。2012年,美国在也门、阿富汗、巴基斯坦等国的军事行动造成无辜平民大量死亡;焚经辱尸,亵渎当地人民的宗教感情。美军在伊拉克战争中使用白磷弹和贫铀弹,使战后伊拉克婴儿出生缺陷率大幅上升。

——美国未能有效参与国际人权合作。美国没有加入或批准《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》、《儿童权利公约》、《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》、《残疾人权利公约》等一系列联合国核心人权公约。


一、关于生命与人身安全

2012年,美国暴力犯罪问题严重,使用枪支的犯罪案件频繁发生,公民的生命与人身安全没有得到应有保障。

美国联邦调查局2012年9月的统计显示,2011年,美国共发生暴力犯罪案件约1203564起,相当于每10万居民386.3起。在向执法部门报告的暴力犯罪案件中,严重暴力攻击案件比例高达62.4%,暴力抢劫案占29.4%,强奸案占6.9%,谋杀案占1.2%。使用枪支的犯罪在谋杀案中占67.7%,在抢劫案中占41.3%,在所有犯罪案件中占21.2%。

美国是世界上人均拥有枪支最多的国家。美国有线电视新闻网2012年7月23日报道称,美国公民手中约有2.7亿支枪,每年有10余万人遭遇枪击,2010年有3万多人死于枪伤。然而,美国在枪支管理方面少有作为。2008年和2010年,美国最高法院就两起持枪案作出裁决,裁定州和地方政府限制公民拥有枪支的法律违宪。大约有一半的州修法允许枪支拥有者在大多数公共场所公开携带枪支。许多州的法律允许公民在受到威胁的情况下开枪,即使在他们不用武力能够逃离威胁的情况下也可以开枪。据《印度教徒报》网站2012年8月7日的文章,若按人口计算,美国部分地区的民众比伊拉克或阿富汗等战乱地区的民众更有可能成为与枪支有关的凶杀案的受害者。2013年1月16日,美国总统公布了23条可以立即采取的与控枪相关的举措并签署了其中的三条,但舆论普遍认为,控枪举措将遭遇极大阻力。

《今日美国报》网站2012年10月17日报道称,2011年,美国的暴力犯罪增长17%。枪击暴力犯罪是对美国公民生命和人身安全最严重的威胁之一。据统计,2011年美国发生的谋杀案中有14612名受害者,其中9903人与枪击有关。(见注1)2012年,美国发生了更多的枪击暴力犯罪案件。据纽约市警察局2012年9月2日的统计数据显示,纽约市已经发生1001起枪击案,比2011年同期上升了3.4%。(见注2)据芝加哥警察局网站的统计,2012年,芝加哥共发生2460起枪击案件,同比增长10%。有的枪击案十分血腥和恐怖,如科罗拉多州影院枪击案和康涅狄格州校园枪击案。

2012年7月20日,24岁的詹姆斯·霍姆斯手持一支AR-15步枪、一支猎枪和至少1把手枪进入科罗拉多州奥罗拉市一家电影院,对正在观看电影的观众进行扫射,导致12人身亡,59人受伤。有目击者回忆说:“他简直就像在狩猎季中打猎一样射杀众人。”美国有线电视新闻网7月21日报道称,执法部门资料显示,这些武器都是詹姆斯·霍姆斯此前6个月内在丹佛地区的体育用品商店内合法购买的。据美国有线电视新闻网2012年7月23日报道,纽约市长迈克尔·布隆伯格在科罗拉多州枪击案发生后说:“我认为世界上没有哪个发达国家还存在像我们这样严重的问题。”

2012年12月14日,20岁的亚当·兰扎手持一支步枪和两支手枪闯入康涅狄格州纽敦市桑迪胡克小学,枪杀20名儿童和6名教职工,凶手也自杀身亡,之前他还枪杀了自己的母亲。这是造成2007年32人丧生的弗吉尼亚理工大学的校园枪杀案之后又一严重的校园枪击案。

注1:美国科学家联合会网站(www.fas.org),2012年11月14日。
注2:《纽约每日新闻报》,2012年9月9日。



二、关于公民权利和政治权利

近年来,美国政府对公民采取了更加严密的监视措施。警察虐待嫌疑人和服刑人员现象屡见不鲜。公民平等选举权不断受到侵害。

美国政府不断强化对民众的监控,大幅限制和缩减美国社会的自由空间,严重侵犯公民自由。2012年美国国会通过法律,授权政府通过未经许可的窃听及电子通讯手段侵犯民众隐私。据科技咨询网2012年5月4日一篇报道,美国联邦调查局起草了一部法案,要求社交网络网站、IP网络语音传输技术的提供方、即时信息、网络电子邮件服务商等更改代码,以便政府进行监控。美国民权同盟2012年9月27日公布的文件显示,联邦执法机构对美国人的电子通讯监控正在日益增多。从2009年到2011年,司法部使用“电子笔录器”和“诱捕与追踪装置”监视电话通讯次数从23535次增加到37616次,增长了60%;获准使用“电子笔录器”和“诱捕与追踪装置”检测个人电子邮件和网络数据的次数增长了361%。国家安全局通过“严格和系统”的方式,收集美国民众纯粹家庭内部的信息往来记录,每天截获和存储17亿条电子邮件、电话和其他沟通类型的信息。2012年3月的一项有线调查显示,2012年美国国家安全局在犹他州筹建一个巨型数据中心,用于存放和分析“全世界范围内的海量通信”。(见注3)美国公民自由联盟披露,美国政府使用的军用无人机有可能用于暗中监视美国公民。(见注4)

2012年9月17日是“占领华尔街”运动一周年纪念日,在华尔街附近的示威者与警方爆发大规模冲突,有超过100人被逮捕。(见注5)媒体担心美国新闻立法会越来越严厉。由于发表不同政治观点,美国记者失业的情况很常见。(见注6)

美国警察因侵犯嫌疑人和服刑人员权利而遭受的投诉与指控呈上升趋势。纽约市警察局卷入了多宗诉讼案,其警察被控在执法过程中侵犯公民权利。据《芝加哥论坛报》2012年3月6日报道,51岁的尤金·格鲁伯在被拘留期间遭受的暴力虐待致其全身瘫痪,4个月后不治身亡;3月21日又报道,7名北芝加哥地区警察对嫌疑犯达林·汉纳采用捆绑、电击等刑讯手段,使汉纳在一周后即因严重的身体创伤而死亡。美国有线电视新闻网2012年5月17日报道称,美国各州被关押人员中有9.6%的人在关押期间受到性侵犯,比2008年增加了一倍多。在得克萨斯州监狱,许多犯人被关押在室温高达华氏3位数的牢房内,58岁的拉里·基恩·麦考伦、44岁的亚历山大·托贡尼茨、57岁的麦克尔·戴维·马尔托尼和52岁的肯尼斯·韦恩·詹姆斯于2011年死于中暑,另有至少5名囚犯的死亡也与室内高温有关。(见注7)

美国公民并没有真正享有平等的选举权。2012年美国总统选举中,符合条件的选民人数比2008年增加了800万,但实际参加投票的人数反而减少了500万,投票率仅为57.5%。(见注8)皮尤中心2012年2月的一份调查报告称,选民登记系统存在着错误和低效,削弱了选民的热情,也加剧了党派间关于选举公正性的争论。(见注9)

美国选举形同金钱对决,政治献金深刻影响美国的政策走向。2012年,美国选举的总花费为60亿美元,截至2012年10月17日,民主党候选人筹款数额为10.6亿美元,共和党候选人筹款数额为9. 54亿美元,两大阵营巨额花费的背后都有财团资助。(见注10)据一项民意调查显示,近90%的美国人认为2012年竞选中来自商界的捐资太多,政治献金只会让富人对决策有更大影响力。(见注11)美国哈佛大学一名教授认为,美国的政治制度陷入了一场严重危机,它受到利益集团及其出资人的摆布。竞选捐款“助长了其他所有的弊端”。美国政治正在腐化美国人民,使他们一步步陷入对有组织利益集团的依赖。(见注12)

《基督教科学箴言报》网站2012年11月5日引用国际知名人士的评论指出,在美国总统竞选中,易出问题的投票器、对投票器做手脚的风险、计票缺乏透明以及选举人团制度都使美国的选举制度存在严重缺陷。

注3:《卫报》,2012年7月10日。
注4:《法尔斯通讯社》,2012年6月26日。
注5:《纽约时报》,2012年9月16日。
注6:俄罗斯外交部网站(www.mid.ru),2012年10月22日。
注7:“得州民权项目”网站(www.texascivilrightsproject.org),2012年7月7日。
注8:两党政策中心网站(bipartisanpolicy.org),2012年11月8日。
注9:美国皮尤中心(www.pewstates.org),2012年2月。
注10:英国《旗帜晚报》网站(www.standard.co.uk),2012年11月6日。
注11:《国际先驱导报》,2012年11月16日。
注12:德国《国际政治》,2012年11-12月号刊。



三、关于经济和社会权利

美国政府至今未批准已经得到160个国家批准的《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》。很多美国公民没有享受到国际公认的经济和社会权利。

美国的失业率长期处于高位。近年来,又有大批美国人失业。美国劳工部2012年5月4日公布的数据显示,2012年4月,美国失业率为8.1%。失业人口高达1250万人。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2012年12月3日援引一份报告指出,有近650万美国年轻人处于失学和失业状态。过去10年,16到19岁青年的就业率降低了42%。《洛杉矶时报》网站2012年4月27日载文说,参加过阿富汗战争和伊拉克战争的老兵的失业率是10.3%,而年龄在24岁以下的老兵的失业率则高达29.1%。大学毕业生就业困难。美联社2012年4月22日报道称,2011年,美国25岁以下拥有学士学位的人中,53.6%的人找不到工作或者学非所用。即使找到了工作,有些人也得不到适当的报酬。在美国食品行业近2000万工人中,有60%的人收入低于当地的贫困线标准。(见注13)

2008年金融危机以来,美国的贫困问题持续加剧。美国人口统计局2012年9月12日公布的统计数据显示,2011年,美国的贫困率为15%,生活在贫困线以下的美国人有4620万。约有1800万个家庭吃不饱饭,其中680多万个家庭在一年中会有几个月的时间担心没有足够的钱购买食品。(见注14)《赫芬顿邮报》2012年10月30日报道称,22%的美国儿童生活在贫困之中。美国是当今世界上儿童和青少年贫困率最高的发达国家之一。

近年来,美国的贫富差距进一步拉大。经合组织报告说,美国贫富差距在发达国家中位列第四。2011年,美国基尼系数达到0.477,2010-2011年间,美国的收入差距增长了1.6%,社会两极化趋势进一步加强。2010-2011年,收入最高的20%的家庭占美国家庭总收入的份额增加了1.6个百分点,收入最高的5%的家庭的份额增加了4.9个百分点,中等收入家庭的份额相应减少,低收入家庭的份额几乎未变。(见注15)

美国有为数众多的无家可归者。结束无家可归全国联盟2012年1月17日发布的报告显示,2011年,美国无家可归者达636017人,平均每万人中就有21个无家可归者,其中,长期无家可归者为107148人。无处容身者人数比2009年上升2%,达到243701人。每10名无家可归者中就有4人无处容身。2012年4月,纽约市收容所里的无家可归者比2011年增加了10%。(见注16)无家可归者受到歧视和侵害。《今日美国》2012年2月15日报道称,在234个样本城市中,24%的城市禁止无家可归者乞讨,22%的城市禁止无家可归者街头流浪,16%的城市规定露宿公共场所是违法行为。1999年到2010年期间,已报道的针对无家可归者的暴力犯罪达到1184起,这些案件造成了312名无家可归者死亡。

美国是当今世界上少数没有实行全民医疗保险的发达国家之一,有相当数量的居民因没有医疗保险而无法在患病时得到必要的医疗照顾。2011年,美国有15.7%的居民没有医疗保险,人数达到48613000。(见注17)《赫芬顿邮报》2012年11月13日报道称,每年约有11.5万名美国妇女在离婚后,因无力负担私人保险费用而失去医疗保险。2012年6月20日,美国家庭联盟的消费者权益保护组织发布报告称,2010年,美国有26100名年龄在25到64岁之间的劳动人口由于缺乏医疗保险而丧命,比2000年增加了31%。(见注18)

注13:《赫芬顿邮报》,2012年6月6日。
注14:美国劳工部网站(www.dol.gov),2012年9月5日。
注15:美国人口统计局网站(www.census.gov),2012年9月12日。
注16:无家可归者联盟网站(www.coalitionforthehomeless.org),2012年6月8日。
注17:美国人口统计局网站(www.census.gov),2012年9月12日。
注18:路透社网站(www.reuters.com),2012年6月20日。



四、关于种族歧视

美国长期存在的种族歧视未见改善,少数族裔的政治、经济和社会权利未能得到平等保障。

少数族裔的选举权受到限制。在2012年11月举行的美国总统大选中,部分亚裔选民在投票站遭遇投票障碍,并受到歧视。(见注19)联合国人权理事会特别报告员联名指控美国未能确保非洲裔和拉丁裔美国人充分行使投票权。《波士顿评论》2013年1月-2月号刊报道称,截至2010年,美国有超过585万公民由于刑事犯罪被剥夺选举权,目前由于刑事犯罪而被剥夺选举权的非洲裔美国人超过200万。美国司法部长也承认,由于少数族裔选举权受到身份证法的限制,使部分人在事实上被剥夺了该项权利。(见注20)

少数族裔在就业方面受到歧视,经济状况恶化。美国劳工部统计数据显示,2012年10月,白人失业率为7.0%,非洲裔失业率为14.3%,拉丁裔的失业率则为10.0%。(见注21) 美国均等就业机会委员会认定某企业在人员雇佣上存在明显的种族歧视。(见注22)亚裔和非洲裔重新就业所耗时间明显长于白人,亚裔平均为27.7周,非洲裔为27周,而白人为19.7周。(见注23)美国劳工部数据显示,2012年,纽约市约有50%的黑人处于失业状态,这些人失业后平均需要花上一年时间才能找到新工作。(见注24) 就业歧视是导致收入差距和贫困的重要原因之一。美国人口统计局2012年9月12日的数据显示,2011年非洲裔美国人家庭收入中位数为32229美元,不到非西班牙裔白人收入的60%;非洲裔美国人贫困率为27.6%,约为非西班牙裔白人贫困率的3倍。

执法和司法领域种族歧视严重。路透社网站2012年7月3日报道称,跟其他族裔相比,警察更袒护白人。纽约市在2011年68.5万次警察街头拦截检查中,超过85%针对黑人和拉丁裔人群。少数族裔被执法部门侵害的事件时有发生。阿肯色州一名21岁黑人青年被警察搜身后带入巡逻车,其后他被发现在双手被铐住的情况下头部中枪死亡。(见注25)28岁的黑人穆罕默德·巴哈被纽约警方射杀引发非洲裔社团的愤怒。(见注26)“得州民权项目”网站2012年7月24日的文章称,由于奥斯汀警方滥用武力,自2011年以来发生了两起警方枪杀少数族裔嫌疑人事件。当地人权机构负责人指出,警方对受害人死因调查的细致深入程度甚至比不上对当地一条狗的死因调查。2013年1月14日,美国《纽约时报》专栏作家查尔斯·M·布洛在一篇文章中指出,美国“实现种族和谐的愿望正在破产。对黑皮肤的根本性歧视——这一奴隶制度的支柱却依然顽固存在。”(见注27)

宗教歧视明显上升,侮辱和攻击穆斯林的事件增多。穆斯林人口不到美国总人口的1%,但是联邦政府调查的宗教歧视案件中,14%涉及穆斯林;在职场宗教歧视案件中,25%涉及穆斯林。(见注28) 2012年9月,美国一名导演拍摄并在互联网上播放侮辱伊斯兰教先知的电影,再次引发全球穆斯林的抗议浪潮。在休斯敦,有人将一头死猪扔在一座清真寺的门口。(见注29)美国海军特种部队被曝出将穆斯林女性持枪图作为训练标靶使用。(见注30) 57岁的穆斯林巴沙尔·艾哈迈德在清真寺外被人撕咬并刺伤,凶手行凶时大喊反穆斯林口号。(见注31)自“9·11”事件以来,美国司法部已调查超过800起针对穆斯林、阿拉伯和南亚裔的暴力、纵火和破坏公共财物事件。(见注32)

种族隔离在美国事实上依然存在。《纽约时报》2012年8月6日报道称,在纽约的高档社区上东区,非西班牙裔黑人居民仅占2.7%,白人居民占81%。当地的房屋管理委员会可以拒绝黑人买主在此购买房屋而不给出任何理由,上东区卖主拒绝黑人买主已经名声在外。调查显示,纽约在一项对黑人隔离的城市排行榜中位列第二位,在对西班牙裔和亚裔人群隔离的排行榜中居第三位。美国国家航空航天局房地产公司主管因拒绝租房给3个非洲裔美国人而被起诉。他声称没有房子可以出租,却在一小时内带白人租户看房,并说:“你们看起来像好人,所以我才带你们看。”(见注33)此外,还有研究发现美国许多工作场所中种族隔离的情形也越来越明显,调查的58个行业中有19个行业呈现出种族隔离的倾向。(见注34)

种族关系紧张,仇恨犯罪频发。美联社2012年10月28日报道,最新民意调查显示,51%的美国人对非洲裔美国人持明确的反对态度,较2008年上升了3个百分点。美国广播公司网站2012年11月19日报道,纽约市布鲁克林区在四个月中接连有3名中东裔商店业主遭枪击身亡,警方称不排除种族偏见是枪手的作案动机。密西西比州两名年轻白人男子因种族原因用卡车故意碾压一名黑人男子致死,这两人自2011年起多次使用啤酒瓶、弹弓、机动车等工具对附近黑人进行骚扰和攻击,并时常在他人面前吹嘘自己的行为。(见注35)白人枪手韦德·迈克尔·佩奇在锡克教寺庙枪杀6人,其杀人动机与新纳粹仇恨组织的宣传煽动有关,并被怀疑为白人至上主义分子。(见注36)

土著人权利得不到应有保障。2012年,联合国人权理事会种族主义问题特别报告员穆图马·鲁泰雷指出,纳瓦霍人仍面临严重的种族歧视,无法获得平等的法律待遇和司法救济。(见注37)联合国人权理事会土著人权利问题特别报告员詹姆斯·安纳亚指出,一些开发建设项目使美国土著人难以进入和使用他们的圣地。他在报告中援引有关机构研究数据指出,美国土著人的贫困率是全国贫困率的两倍,寿命比全国平均寿命短5.2年。仅13%的美国土著人拥有大学学历,远低于28%的全国平均水平。土著人妇女遭受暴力侵害的比例是全国平均值的两倍多,1/3的土著人妇女一生中会遭受强暴。(见注38)

非法移民的权利被侵犯。美国移民拘留所的死亡事件时有发生。联合国人权理事会法外处决问题特别报告员克里斯托弗·海因斯在其报告中指出,一些对移民的羁押既无必要也不恰当,发生死亡事件的移民羁押场所类似监狱,被羁押的移民难以获得基本医疗服务。(见注39)联合国人权专家和南佛罗里达移民组织呼吁美国停止遣返海地移民。人权组织认为美国的遣返违反人权原则,遣返将导致这些海地人面临生命危险。(见注40)

注19:《侨报》,2012年11月8日。
注20:《卫报》网站(www.guardian.co.uk),2012年5月30日。
注21:美国劳工部统计局网站(www.bls.gov),2012年11月2日。
注22:www.philly.com,2012年12月4日。
注23:《犹他新闻》网站(www.deseretnews.com),2012年12月4日。
注24:madamenoire.com,2012年6月21日。
注25:《英国每日电讯报》网站(www.telegraph.co.uk),2012年8月8日。
注26:纽约每日新闻网(www.nydailynews.com),2012年9月26日。
注27:《纽约时报》网站,2013年1月14日。
注28:美国中文网(www.sinovision.net),2011年3月29日。
注29:休斯敦新闻网(abclocal.go.com),2012年12月5日。
注30:纽约每日新闻网(www.nydailynews.com),2012年7月3日。
注31:《华尔街日报》,2012年11月19日。
注32:路透社网站(www.reuters.com),2011年3月29日。
注33:queenscourier.com,2012年12月12日。
注34:《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2012年10月25日。
注35:路透社,2012年12月5日。
注36:美国有线电视新闻网(edition.cnn.com),2012年8月10日。
注37:联合国文件编号A/67/328。
注38:联合国文件编号A/HRC/21/47/Add.1。
注39:联合国文件编号A/HRC/20/22/Add.3。
注40:《迈阿密先驱报》,2012年6月6日。



五、关于妇女和儿童权利

美国是世界上少数几个至今尚未批准《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》和《儿童权利公约》的国家,在妇女和儿童权利保护方面依旧问题突出。

女性遭遇就业和薪酬歧视。美国劳工统计局2012年数据显示,2011年,大约2/3的最低薪酬工作由女性承担,61%的最低薪酬全职工是女性。(见注41)2012年4月17日的一项调查数据显示,按平均值,美国女性需要从2011年工作到2012年4月17日才能挣到美国男性2011年全年的收入,工资平均仅为男性的77%,黑人女性的工资相当于男性的62%,拉丁裔女性的工资相当于男性的54%,部分州有色人种女性工资水平尚不足有色人种男性工资收入的50%。(见注42)男女工资差异最大的是怀俄明州,女性的工资仅为男性的64%。(见注43)俄克拉荷马州投票通过了州宪法修正案,终止了在州内115个政府机构中增加雇佣妇女和少数民族的积极行动计划。(见注44)孕妇和新生儿母亲面临着现实的就业歧视问题,雇佣者并不尊重“怀孕歧视法案”,时常发生逼迫怀孕女员工离开自己工作岗位的事件。(见注45)休斯敦一名妇女为了让新生儿喝到新鲜的母乳而向所在公司申请带着吸奶器上班,却因此被公司解雇,康涅狄格州一名孕妇在告知公司怀孕消息后被要求自行辞职。(见注46)

女性贫困率高于男性。国家妇女法律中心报告称,2011年女性的贫困率为14.6%,高于男性的10.9%。40%的女性户主家庭处于贫困状态,一项针对退休妇女境况的报告显示,女性退休人员的贫困率比男性退休人员高50%。(见注47)

妇女遭受暴力和性侵犯。在美国,平均每天有3名女性因家庭暴力而丧生。(见注48)反家庭暴力机构在2011年9月发起的一项全国调查显示,每天有超过67000名受害人接受他们的帮助。(见注49)2010年美国强奸案被捕率仅为24%。(见注50) 2012年,联合国人权理事会针对妇女暴力问题特别报告员在提交联大的报告中指出,美国多数监狱未就防止囚犯性侵犯行为对监狱管理人员进行充分培训,监狱强奸案发生之后通常不了了之,有罪不罚。(见注51)

美国女性军人在服役期间也经常遭受性骚扰和性侵害,有媒体质疑美国军队中存在“强奸文化”。(见注52) 79%的女性军人在服役期间遭遇过性骚扰,大量受害女性军人患有创伤后应激障碍症和抑郁症。(见注53)美国空军军事教官路易斯·沃克强奸和性侵10名受训女性,是1990年以来美军被曝出的最大性丑闻。(见注54) 2011年,近3200起在美国军队中的强奸和性侵害事件被正式报道,就连五角大楼也承认这些事件仅占所有此类事件的15%;一项军事调查显示,约1/5美国军队中的女性曾经受到过性侵害,但大多数受害人没有向有关机构报告。约半数的受害人说他们“不想在单位中招惹麻烦”。(见注55)

少数族裔妇女健康状况堪忧。在华盛顿特区贫困社区里,异性恋的非洲裔妇女艾滋病毒感染率较两年前的6.3%几乎增加了一倍,官员说该市90%的女性艾滋病患者是黑人。(见注56)非洲裔妇女只占美国女性人口总数的14%,而每年新感染艾滋病毒的妇女中,66%是黑人;黑人妇女艾滋病患者死亡率是白人妇女的近16倍。(见注57)《芝加哥论坛报》网站2012年8月3日报道称,美国少数族裔妇女在分娩过程中或分娩后不久的死亡率要高于白人妇女。每出生10万个婴儿,就有7到9个白人母亲死于生产过程之中,西班牙裔和亚裔母亲中有10个左右,而黑人母亲中则高达32到35人。

儿童人身安全得不到保障,人身自由受到侵害。英国《每日电讯报》网站2012年12月16日报道称,美国儿童死于枪支的比率是排在其后面的全世界20个主要工业化国家总比率的25倍。全国反失踪和被剥削儿童中心称,每年至少有10万名儿童被贩卖。(见注58)

儿童性侵害案件严重。美国防止虐待儿童网站2012年11月5日报道称,20%成年女性和5-15%成年男性在童年或青少年时期遭遇过性虐待。2010年美国有63527名儿童成为性虐待的受害者。美国有线电视新闻网2012年10月18日报道称,美国童子军公布的1247件“不合格志愿者档案”,详细列举了超过1000多名被控性侵儿童的童子军领袖和志愿者的资料。他们被控在1965年到1985年性侵或猥亵男童而被开除出童子军。报道称,教士和地方童子军领袖长期包庇性侵儿童的嫌疑人。前宾夕法尼亚州州立大学美式足球助理教练杰里·桑达斯基在长达15年的时间里对10名男孩进行了性虐待。(见注59)2012年美国还曝出了系列宗教人员性侵儿童案件:7月,费城天主教高级教士威廉姆·林恩因纵容一名涉嫌猥亵儿童的神职人员继续接触儿童而获刑六年;(见注60)9月,一名堪萨斯城主教因未能举报其手下一名制作儿童色情作品的神父而被判有罪。(见注61)

儿童无家可归者数量剧增,贫困率居高不下。美国教育部2012年6月27日发布数据显示,公立学校报告的无家可归儿童和青少年数量有史以来首次超过100万,该数字尚不包括未登记人员在内。44个州报告州内无家可归学生的数量呈现逐年增长的趋势,15个州称这一增幅在20%以上。自2006-2007学年以来,在公立学校登记入学的无家可归儿童数量增加了57%。全国无家可归和贫困法律中心2012年6月27日报告称,密歇根州在公立学校登记入学的无家可归儿童数量在2008到2011年间增长了315%。(见注62)2012年9月,纽约市儿童无家可归者达到1万9千人。14岁的弗朗切斯科居住在收容所里,他说,“收容所里的生活像地狱一样”。(见注63)无家可归的孩子学业表现堪忧,只有52%的人能达到熟练阅读水平,51%的人数学能够及格。无家可归的学生更容易失学,且高中毕业率远低于其他学生。(见注64) 美国2012年发布的儿童及青少年主要生活指数显示, 2010年, 1640万0到17岁的美国儿童和青少年生活在贫困之中,约占该年龄段儿童和青少年总数的22%。(见注65)有14个州报告在2010年至2011年间,越来越多的儿童陷入贫困境地。(见注66)过去十年中,内华达州的儿童贫困人口上升了38%。(见注67)

注41:womensenews.org,2012年12月11日。
注42:womensenews.org,2012年4月30日。
注43:同上。
注44:芝加哥论坛网站(articles.chicagotribune.com),2012年11月7日。
注45:美国有线电视新闻网(edition.cnn.com),2012年11月26日。
注46:《洛杉矶时报》网站(www.latimes.com),2012年2月8日。
注47:womensenews.org,2012年9月17日。
注48:www.dccadv.org,2012年10月1日。
注49:womensenews.org,2012年7月17日。
注50:www.thedailybeast.com,2012年4月9日。
注51:联合国文件编号A/67/227。
注52:半岛电视台网站(www.aljazeera.com),2012年8月4日。
注53:服役女兵行动网(www.servicewomen.org)。
注54:路透社网站(www.reuters.com),2012年7月21日。
注55:半岛电视台网站(www.aljazeera.com),2012年8月4日。
注56:《华盛顿邮报》网站(www.washingtonpost.com),2012年6月21日。
注57: www.newswise.com,2012年3月7日。
注58:《今日美国报》,2012年9月27日。
注59:《今日美国报》,2012年10月10日。
注60:《华尔街日报》网站,2012年7月24日。
注61:《华尔街日报》,2012年9月6日。
注62:全国无家可归和贫困法律中心网站(www.nlchp.org),2012年6月27日。
注63:《纽约每日新闻》,2012年9月9日。
注64:今日全美教育协会网站(neatoday.org),2012年11月28日。
注65:《基督教科学箴言报》网站(www.csmonitor.com),2012年7月17日。
注66:今日美国网站(usatoday.com),2012年9月23日。
注67:《基督教科学箴言报》网站(www.csmonitor.com),2012年8月17日。



六、关于侵犯他国人权

美国是冷战结束后世界上对外发动战争最频繁的国家。美国发动的伊拉克战争和阿富汗战争造成大量平民伤亡。制止战争联盟网站2012年6月14日的文章说,2001-2011年间,每年约有14000至110000名平民死于美国领导的“反恐战争”。联合国驻阿富汗援助团推算,2007年到2011年7月,至少有10292名阿富汗平民被打死。伊拉克“死亡人数统计项目”记录,2003年至2011年8月,有约115000名平民死亡。在巴基斯坦、也门和索马里,有许多平民死于美军炮火。2004年至2012年6月,巴基斯坦至少有484名平民死于美军袭击行动,其中包括168名儿童。美军在也门的攻击行动造成了56名平民死亡。(见注68)驻阿富汗美军频繁使用无人机越过阿富汗和巴基斯坦边界,对巴基斯坦边界地带发动攻击。(见注69)2012年9月25日《每日邮报》报道称,美国无人轰炸机在巴基斯坦境内杀死的每50人中,只有一个是恐怖分子,其余49人都是无辜平民。(见注70)

驻阿富汗美军无端屠杀平民。2012年3月11日凌晨3时,驻阿富汗美军士兵罗伯特·贝尔斯走出位于南部省份坎大哈的基地,来到附近的一个小村庄,进入两户人家。他在第一户人家开枪打死了一名男子,屋里其他人逃到了邻居家躲避。贝尔斯接着又去了第二户人家,开枪打死3人,打伤6人。贝尔斯返回基地,与一名士兵聊了一会后又离开军营,到另一个村庄,闯入一户人家,射杀了10多名熟睡的村民。贝尔斯总计杀死17名无辜村民,其中包括9名儿童。行凶之后,贝尔斯还把多具尸体聚拢在一起,放火烧毁。(见注71)

以美国为首的军事行动制造了生态灾难,伊拉克战后儿童出生缺陷率 “惊人增加”。(见注72)国际石油变革组织负责人史蒂夫·克雷茨曼说:“2003年3月到2007年12月,伊拉克战争是相当于至少1.41亿吨二氧化碳排放的罪魁祸首……这场战争的排放量超过了其他国家总量的60%。”(见注73)英国《独立报》网站2012年10月14日报道称,由于美军使用了释放金属污染物的白磷弹等,伊拉克战争后,伊拉克婴儿的出生缺陷率大幅增加。在曾经发生两场激烈战斗的伊拉克城市费卢杰,婴儿出生缺陷率由战前的10%猛增到2007-2010年的50%以上,孕妇流产率在2004年后两年内由10%跃升到45%。

美国士兵严重侮辱阿富汗人的尊严,亵渎他们的宗教感情。法新社2012年9月24日报道称,在2011年7月的一次军事行动中,4名美国海军陆战队员一边笑着一边向3具血淋淋的尸体撒尿,其中一名美军冲着其中的一具尸体说:“伙计,祝你有美好的一天。”他们把这个过程录了下来,并在互联网上传播。2012年2月,美军驻阿富汗巴格拉姆空军基地的士兵把一批伊斯兰宗教书籍运到垃圾填埋场焚烧,其中包括500本《古兰经》,激起公愤。(见注74)

美国在关塔那摩监狱长期非法关押外国人,截至2012年1月,该监狱中仍然关押着171人。(见注75)美国拒绝给予他们日内瓦公约规定的战俘权利,并用酷刑虐待他们。美国相关机构透露,为逼迫关押在关塔那摩监狱中的嫌犯招供,美方曾对部分犯人施水刑多达100余次,有时使用半自动武器或电钻加以胁迫,甚至以性侵嫌犯母亲相威胁。(见注76)2012年9月,也门人阿德南·法尔汉·拉蒂夫死于关塔那摩监狱,成为第9个死于该监狱的囚犯。他从2002年1月关塔那摩监狱成立起就被关押在那里,但是从未受到刑事指控。(见注77)联合国人权事务高级专员皮莱2012年1月23日发表公开声明称,关塔那摩监狱存在包括酷刑在内的严重侵犯人权行为,但是侵犯人权者未受应有惩罚。(见注78) 有美国知名人士指出,美国政府的反恐政策至少违反了《世界人权宣言》30条规定中的10条,包括禁止“残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或惩罚”。(见注79)

美国拒绝承认绝大多数国家普遍重视的发展权。2012年9月举行的人权理事会第21次会议通过发展权决议时,美国是唯一投反对票的国家。第67届联合国大会以188票赞成、3票反对、2票弃权再次通过决议,要求美国中止对古巴长达半个世纪的经济封锁。美国不顾绝大多数联合国成员的意愿,继续投了反对票。(见注80)

注68:制止战争联盟网站(stopwar.org.uk),2012年6月14日。
注69:英国广播公司网站(www.bbc.co.uk),2012年9月25日。
注70:每日邮报网站(www.dailymail.co.uk),2012年9月25日。
注71:法新社,2012年3月23日;美联社,2012年3月24日;《赫芬顿邮报》网站(www.huffingtonpost.com),2012年11月11日。
注72:英国《独立报》网站,2012年10月14日。
注73:coto2.wordpress.com,2009年12月21日。
注74:美国有线电视新闻网(edition.cnn.com),2012年2月22日。
注75:美国观察网站(watchingamerica.com),2012年1月17日。
注76:《纽约时报》网站(www.nytimes.com),2012年6月24日。
注77:美国广播公司网站(abcnews.go.com),2012年9月11日。
注78:联合国网站(www.un.org),2012年1月23日。
注79:《纽约时报》网站(www.nytimes.com),2012年6月24日。
注80:联合国文件编号:GA/11311。

Thursday, 2 May 2013

91民间团体2013年5月2日联合声明:万众一心,政党轮替

万众一心,政党轮替

91民间团体2013年5月2日联合声明


我们身为关心国家未来的教育团体与公民社会组织,在此呼吁全国人民,善用手中一票,否决威权政治,促成政党轮替,巩固民主制度。

1970年代以来,种族政治大行其道,歧视性政策日益露骨。为了寻找出路,华团在80年代提出“两线制”,尝试以替代阵线制衡执政联盟,打破种族政治不良局面,力争人民权益。这个努力直到2008年的“308政治海啸”,“两线制”才有落实的契机。

自308之后,种族威权政治松动,人民力量涌现街头,各种社会运动此起彼伏。如为了捍卫多源流教育和多元文化的母语教育运动;为了保障民主制度的基础的干净选举运动;为了确保良好的施政能力的反贪腐滥权运动;或是为了维护安全的居住环境的反公害运动;以及为了保护历史文化遗产的捍卫老街老社区运动等等。这些都是人民发自内心的深切渴望,是人民为了国家健全发展合情、合理的要求。可是,50年来一党独大的执政集团积重难返,只顾一己私利,漠视人民的呼声及权益,不惜滥用国家机器打压人民。

如今,第13届大选已来临,这是实现“两线制”的黄金时机,也是我国政治发展的分水岭。我们重申,政党轮替是民主转型的必经之路。国家只有经历政党轮替,才有望打破数十年来的威权体制。朝野政党的政治力量重新洗牌,并且达到有效制衡,“两线制”才能真正落实,唯有这样,我国宪政体系才能伸张,民主制度才能巩固。

在纵观国际,有了政党轮替,才让欧洲各国人民有选择左派或右派的政策的自由;有了政党轮替,才让日本民众了解政治的多元性,了解一党独大的自民党不等同于政府;有了政党轮替,才让台湾政治逐渐回归正轨,远离统独口号之争。因此,我们深信,政党轮替,及其所带来的互相制衡,才有可能抑制朋党营私,使民主制度得以完善,使国家能有长远的建设。

马来西亚发展至今,执政集团的朋党体系是已经高度腐败,公共机构不公不义的机制已经病入膏肓,难以自行转型。只有告别威权政治,开创新政格局,贪污腐败才能连根拔除,官僚效率才能有效提升,国家才会昂然迈步向前。

政党轮替是民主转型的第一步,也是事关重大的第一步。国家兴亡,匹夫有责。身为国家的主人,人民应该善用手中一票,坚决否决威权政治,促成政党轮替,巩固民主制度,开创国家民主化的进程!

联署单位:

1. 马来西亚华文教育家长总会
2. 马来西亚留日同学会
3. 博大华文学会
4. 马大华文学会
5. 马来西亚青年与学生民主运动
6. 马大新青年毕业生协会
7. 全国绿色醒觉运动
8. 反莱纳斯联盟
9. 向日葵选举教育运动
10. 霹雳广东会馆
11. 林连玉基金霹雳州联委会
12. 林连玉基金下霹雳联委会
13. 霹雳南洋大学校友会
14. 霹雳华校校友会联合会
15. 霹雳独中联盟
16. 霹靂大專青年社
17. 霹雳社区关怀协会
18. 霹雳绿色先锋
19. 江沙觉民阅报社
20. 瓜拉光抗毒臭委员会
21. 瓜拉光三圣庙
22. 怡保向日葵小组
23. 怡保小绿洲图书馆
24. 林连玉基金昔加末联委会
25. 林连玉基金峇都吧辖联委会
26. 林连玉基金笨珍联委会
27. 林连玉基金新山联委会
28. 新山留台同学会
29. 人民之友工委会
30. 新山歌乐协会
31. 柔南黄色行动小组
32. 林连玉基金巴生滨海联委会
33. 雪直区中山同乡会
34. 坤成校友会
35. 雪隆尊孔学校校友会
36. 雪隆理华同学会
37. 雪隆老友联谊会
38. 巴生濱海区老友联谊会
39. 雪兰莪万津老友联谊会
40. 巴生光华中学校友会
41. 大同学校校友会
42. 雪隆社区关怀协会
43. 隆雪中华大会堂青年团
44. 乌雪区安溪会馆
45. 雪隆广东会馆青年团
46. 雪隆潮州会馆青年团
47. 雪隆会甯公会青年团
48. 隆雪河婆同乡会青年部
49. 雪隆福建会馆青年团
50. 沙登新村学校校友会青年团
51. 槟州老友联谊会
52. 林连玉基金槟城联委会
53. 槟州独中教育基金会
54. 槟城韩江同学会
55. 槟城中华校友会
56. 甲抛峇底培育校友会
57. 北海韩江校友会
58. 槟城铜山校友会
59. 槟城同善校友会
60. 槟州屠业公所
61. 马六甲华校董事会联合会
62. 林连玉基金马六甲联委会
63. 马六甲老友联谊会
64. 马六甲老爸老妈改革运动
65. 马六甲中华大会堂青年团
66. 马六甲李氏宗祠青年团
67. 马六甲延陵吴氏宗祠青年团
68. 马六甲晨钟励志社青年团
69. 马六甲惠州会馆青年团
70. 马六甲茶阳会馆青年团
71. 马六甲广东会馆青年团
72. 马六甲培风校友会
73. 马六甲平民校友会
74. 彭亨华校董事联合会
75. 林连玉基金中彭联委会
76. 林连玉基金东彭联委会
77. 彭亨老友联谊会
78. 彭亨有机种植协会
79. 林连玉基金森美兰联委会
80. 森美兰中华大会堂青年团
81. 森美兰潮州会馆
82. 森美兰潮州会馆青年团
83. 森美兰海南会馆青年团
84. 森美兰泷江会馆青年团
85. 森美兰老友联谊会
86. 森美兰老爸老妈改革运动
87. 林连玉基金吉玻联委会
88. 林连玉基金吉兰丹联委会
89. 动力青年(Y4C)
90. 中国维权大马后援会(马中维权)
91. “给生命第二次机会”运动(抢救杨伟光)

通告 Notification

《人民之友》发表对国内政局看法
马来文版已于9月23日刊出
英文版已于10月26日贴出


人民之友成立于2001年9月9日,2018年9月9日是人民之友成立17周年纪念的日子。我们在这一天发表了一篇题为< 联合起来,坚持真正的民主改革! 丢掉幻想,阻止马哈迪主义复辟!>的文章作为纪念。

我们一如既往选择在这一个对我们来说,具有里程碑意义的日子,对我国当前阶段(大选后新政府上台)的政治局势发表一些意见,与为推动我国和世界民主人权运动而奋斗的同道们,互相交流。

为了面向国内不谙华文的广大非华裔群体,也为了让我们对当前阶段的政治局势的意见能够更广泛地传播开去,工委会决定尽快把这篇纪念文章先后翻译成马来文和英文。马来文版已于9月23日刊出。英文版也已于10月26日贴出。点击以下链接即可阅读——



此外,现居新加坡的庄明湖已将他在《人民之友》发表的《20世纪60年代新加坡左派工运问题探索》(正篇)一文的英文译稿传送到编辑部,因原文中所述人物的姓名或者是党团工会组织的全称或简称,在译文中尚未解决或有待查证,需要一些时日来完成——人民之友工委都是自愿挤出时间来进行工作的,因而无法很快完成。经过一番努力,我们终于在9月30日刊出,为我们的17周年纪念增添光彩!

值得在此一提的是,庄文所述的20世纪60年代新加坡工运遭遇问题(除了遭受来自外部的镇压,还要遭遇来自内部的破坏)的见解,或许能为一些读者(特别是不谙华文和不懂新马历史的读者)思考马来西亚民主改革运动在当前阶段面临马哈迪主义复辟的问题,提供一个历史殷鉴,或者是一个新的启示。

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